Louisiana Marsh Dieback - Iron and Aluminum tolerance limits and effects on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemerianus, and Avicennia germinans Brown Marsh Task 2.1


Louisiana State University, Wetland and Biogeochemistry Institute and Department of Oceanography and Coastal Studies
Publication_Date: 2005
Louisiana Marsh Dieback - Iron and Aluminum tolerance limits and effects on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemerianus, and Avicennia germinans Brown Marsh Task 2.1
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Digital tabular data
Barataria-Terrebonne National Estuary Program Scientific-Technical Committee
Publication_Date: 20010207
Requests for submission of Scope of Services for Marsh Dieback and Nutria Control Emergency Response
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Publication_Place: Thibodaux, LA
Barataria-Terrebonne National Estuary Program Scientific-Technical Committee
Online_Linkage: <http://www.brownmarsh.net/reports/brown_marsh_rfp.pdf>
This data set consists of experimentation on three species of salt marsh plants and the effects that soluble iron and aluminum has on the species in increased amounts. During drought situations, the level of soluble iron and aluminum may increase and possible cause certain plant species to dieback. In the Spring of 2000, coastal Louisiana experienced such drought conditions. Greenhouse experiments were conducted on the three species and consisted of three treatments for both iron and aluminum (total of six treatments) to determine if this was a possible cause of the dieback.
To study the effects of increasing soluble iron and aluminum concentrations on plant growth responses as a result of increased ferrous iron and aluminum availability
Beginning_Date: 2002
Ending_Date: 2005
Currentness_Reference: observed
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Coastal Louisiana
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -93.910681
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.777417
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 30.509791
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 28.892107
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: tolerance
Theme_Keyword: brown marsh
Theme_Keyword: salt marsh cord-grass
Theme_Keyword: black mangrove
Theme_Keyword: dieback
Theme_Keyword: black needlerush
Theme_Keyword: concentration
Theme_Keyword: saltmarsh
Theme_Keyword: iron
Theme_Keyword: aluminum
Theme_Keyword: soluble concentration
Theme_Keyword: growth response
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Louisiana
Place_Keyword: Coastal Louisiana
Place_Keyword: LA
Place_Keyword: Southern Louisiana
Place_Keyword: Terrebonne Basin
Place_Keyword: Barataria Basin
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Taxonomic_Keywords: Spartina alterniflora
Taxonomic_Keywords: Avicennia germinans
Taxonomic_Keywords: Juncus roemerianus
Taxonomic_Keywords: species
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Plantae
Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliophyta
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliopsida
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Commelinidae
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyperales
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Poaceae
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Spartina
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: alterniflora
Applicable_Common_Name: smooth cordgrass
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Juncales
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Juncaceae
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Juncus
Taxon_Rank_Name: species
Taxon_Rank_Value: roemerianus
Applicable_Common_Name: needlegrass rush
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliopsida
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Asteridae
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lamiales
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Verbenaceae
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Avicennia
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: germinans
Applicable_Common_Name: black mangrove
Data generated by the Brown Marsh principal investigators will be available only to the project’s other principal investigators, following the established QA/QC review, for a period of two years. After two years from the finalization of the data, it shall be made available to the public. Please contact the principal investigator for exact date of availability. It is strongly recommended that these data be directly acquired from the Brown Marsh Database Information Management System server and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way.
Acknowledgement of the principal investigator as a data source would be appreciated in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgement as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected by users of these data. Users should be aware that comparison with other data sets for the same area from other time periods may be inaccurate due to inconsistencies resulting from changes in mapping conventions, methodologies, data collections and computer processes over time. The principal investigator and the distributor shall not be liable for improper or incorrect use of these data, based on the description of appropriate/inappropriate uses described in this metadata document. The principal investigator and distributor make no claims as to the data’s suitability for other purposes. These data are not legal documents and are not to be used as such.
Louisiana State University, Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute and Department of Oceanography and Coastal Studies
Contact_Person: Irving A. Mendelssohn
Contact_Position: Professor
Address_Type: Physical
Address: Louisiana State University
City: Baton Rouge
State_or_Province: LA
Postal_Code: 70803
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 225 578-6425
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 225 578-6423
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: imendel@lsu.edu
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Microsoft Excel 2000
Analytical_Tool_Description: SAS Mixed Model: used to conduct statistical analysis.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.sas.com>
Tool_Access_Instructions: See website for information
Contact_Organization: SAS
Address_Type: Mailing
Address: 100 SAS Campus Drive
City: Cary
State_or_Province: NC
Postal_Code: 27513-2414
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 919 677-8000
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 919 677-4444

The accuracy of the measured attributes is dependent of the amount of human error, which is unknown. The accuracy of the calculated attributes is dependent on the accuracy of the equations used and the statistical software.
For each species, 30 pots were selected for the two metal treatments and further divided into three experimental treatments. Nutrient and pH levels were monitored and maintained through the experiment. All plants were allowed an acclimation period to their new potting environments.
There are no known omissions in the data. During the treatments, concentration levels for the metals were staggered or added before the biweekly solution change in order to quantify a response.
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Methodology_Keyword: collection
Methodology_Keyword: acclimation
Methodology_Keyword: acid washed
Methodology_Keyword: plastic bin
Methodology_Keyword: azalea pot
Methodology_Keyword: mesh
Methodology_Keyword: sand
Methodology_Keyword: treatments
Methodology_Keyword: Hoagland's solution
Methodology_Keyword: concentration
Methodology_Keyword: pH
Methodology_Keyword: salinity
Methodology_Keyword: transplanting
Preparation and setup - Salt marsh plants, Spartina alterniflora, Avicennia germinans, and Juncus roemerianus were acquired for the experiment and potted into commerical potting soil and allowed to acclimate to the greenhouse and grow. Once the acclimation period was concluded, the roots of the plants were washed of all soil. Any dead material was removed and the plants were divided into approximately equal sized planting units (parcel of roots and stems). All plastic bins, azalea pots, mesh, and sand used in the experiment were acid washed and rinsed prior to transplanting. The parcels were planted into pots with sand and set into the plastic bins with a nutrient solution. The drain holes of the pots were lined with the mesh to retain sand and allow for solution exchange. The plants were then allowed another acclimation period (to the sand); during this period, the plants were flushed daily with a Hoagland's solution. The solution in the bin was changed biweekly along with removing any algae in the bin and outside of the pots. The water level was maintained at 05 to 1cm above the sand surface. The solution salinity was increased during the biweekly solution changes to the eventual experimental concentration of 23ppt. After this second acclimation, 30 pots of each species were selected; one pot of each species was placed into a bin. A solution of half-strength Hoagland's at 23ppt and a pH of 6.5 in 100L containers. Each bin received approximately 20L of this solution during the biweekly solution change until the beginning of the experimental treatments three months later.
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Methodology_Keyword: iron treatment
Methodology_Keyword: aluminum treatment
Methodology_Keyword: metal concentration
Methodology_Keyword: leaf elongation
Methodology_Keyword: stem elongation
Methodology_Keyword: stem density
Methodology_Keyword: leaf density
Methodology_Keyword: stand height
Methodology_Keyword: mortality
Methodology_Keyword: biomass
Methodology_Keyword: photosynthetic
Experimentation and data collection - The bins of plants were separated according to the metal experiment (iron or aluminum) and the experimental treatments (5 bins per treatment), control, hold, and ramp. The solution were continually changed at the biweekly period and pH monitored. The iron experiment was initiated at 100uM Fe and 0 uM Al for all treatments (this concentration was maintained for the control for the experiment's duration). At each solution change, 300ml of the new solution was poured through each plant pot three times and the remaining solution was added to the bin to total 20L. For the iron experiment, the concentration for the Hold and Ramp treatments were increased at each solution change until the end concentration level was reached. For the aluminum experiment, the concentration for the Hold and Ramp treatments were also increased at each solution change until it's end concentration level was reached. Plant measurements were taken during and after the experiment and included: leaf/stem elongation, stem/leaf density, stand height, percent of mortality, live biomass, dead biomass, and photosynthetic response.
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Methodology_Keyword: SAS
Methodology_Keyword: statistical analysis
Methodology_Keyword: percentage
Methodology_Keyword: comparison
Methodology_Keyword: mean control
Methodology_Keyword: ANOVA
Analysis - The data were converted to percentage of the control for each species in order to standardize the innate differences among the plant species for all variables except for brown (which was converted to difference of control.) Within the Ramp treatment, the evenly distributed concentrations were selected. Comparisons among the plant species within the Ramp and Hold treatments for each experiment were analyzed separately using SAS 8.0 Mixed Model with repeated measures. We analyzed biomass data within the Ramp and Hold treatments separately with an ANOVA. Plants form significant ANOVAs were compared with least squares means post-test comparison.
Process_Description: See methodology
Process_Date: 2002-2005

All measured and calculated attributes, such as stand heights, biomass, stem/leaf elongation, etc in this subtask were taken for the overall results, the tolerance limits of iron and aluminum in salt marsh plants.
Mendelssohn, Irv, Brown Marsh Project: Task II.1 Growth Response of Brown Marsh Species Populations to Stressor Factors. 2005. Louisiana State University.

Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center
Contact_Person: Scott Wilson
Contact_Position: Electrical Engineer
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical
Address: 700 Cajundome Blvd
City: Lafayette
State_or_Province: LA
Postal_Code: 70506
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 337 266-8664
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 337 266-8513
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: scott_wilson@usgs.gov
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the designated principal investigator’s facility, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the accuracy or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data. It is strongly recommended that these data are directly acquired from the official Brown Marsh Database Information Management System server or from the principal investigator, and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. It is also strongly recommended that careful attention be given to the contents of the metadata file associated with these data. The Brown Marsh committee shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. So, these data are provided as is and without any express or implied warranties. Also, use of trade names or commercial products in the metadata file is solely for the purpose of providing specific information, and does not imply recommendation or endorsement. Any downloading and use of these data signifies a user’s agreement to comprehension and compliance of the disclaimer. Insure all portions of metadata are read and clearly understood before using these data in order to protect both user and principal investigators interests.
Format_Name: Microsoft Excel
Format_Version_Number: 2000+
File_Decompression_Technique: none
Network_Resource_Name: <http://www.brownmarsh.net>
Fees: None, if available online
Custom_Order_Process: None

Metadata_Date: 20051107
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey/NWRC
Contact_Position: Metadata specialist
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical
Address: 700 Cajundome Blvd
City: Lafayette
State_or_Province: LA
Postal_Code: 70506
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 337 266-8500
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 337 266-8513
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Biological Data Profile of Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Online_Linkage: <http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/status/sub5_2.html>
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Acknowledgement of the National Wetlands Research Center as the metadata source would be appreciated. Please cite the original metadata when using portions to create another record for slightly altered data, such as reprojection.

Generated by mp version 2.7.33 on Wed Dec 14 09:11:18 2005